Scot McKnight on the Old Testament and Holy War Texts

Scot McKnight is an American New Testament scholar, historian of early Christianity, theologian, and author who has written widely on the historical Jesus, early Christianity and Christian living. He is currently Professor of New Testament at Northern Baptist Theological Seminary in Lombard, IL. The views expressed in this commentary do not necessarily represent those of BCNN1.


The problem with the holy war texts of the Old Testament is that they are a problem that some think are not a problem. For many this “there is not really a problem” is not a possible solution to the problem, and below we will provide some of the important texts in the Bible.

Over my career this problem has been a problem for me, and I began to sort it out long ago with a book by Peter Craigie called The Problem of War in the Old Testament. Next I read Millard Lind’s book, Yahweh is a Warrior. Eric Seibert’s book Disturbing Divine Behavior came along and I thought I had put this aside for some time but Greg Boyd’s monster book, The Crucifixion of the Warrior God, has brought the conversation back to us. (There are many books and studies of this topic, but these are the ones that I have given most attention to.)

Image: IVP Cover

A new one is now available, but first here are some of the problem texts about war, quoting the NRSV:

Josh. 6:21 Then they devoted to destruction by the edge of the sword all in the city, both men and women, young and old, oxen, sheep, and donkeys.

1Sam. 15:3 Now go and attack Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have; do not spare them, but kill both man and woman, child and infant, ox and sheep, camel and donkey.’”

Num. 21:2 Then Israel made a vow to the LORD and said, “If you will indeed give this people into our hands, then we will utterly destroy their towns.” 3 The LORD listened to the voice of Israel, and handed over the Canaanites; and they utterly destroyed them and their towns; so the place was called Hormah.

Deut. 2:34 At that time we captured all his towns, and in each town we utterly destroyed men, women, and children. We left not a single survivor.

Deut. 20:16 But as for the towns of these peoples that the LORD your God is giving you as an inheritance, you must not let anything that breathes remain alive. 17 You shall annihilate them—the Hittites and the Amorites, the Canaanites and the Perizzites, the Hivites and the Jebusites—just as the LORD your God has commanded.

Here are three problem texts about war rape:

Num. 31:17 Now therefore, kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman who has known a man by sleeping with him. 18 But all the young girls who have not known a man by sleeping with him, keep alive for yourselves.

Num. 31:35 and thirty-two thousand persons in all, women who had not known a man by sleeping with him.

Deut. 21:10 When you go out to war against your enemies, and the LORD your God hands them over to you and you take them captive, 11 suppose you see among the captives a beautiful woman whom you desire and want to marry, 12 and so you bring her home to your house: she shall shave her head, pare her nails, 13 discard her captive’s garb, and shall remain in your house a full month, mourning for her father and mother; after that you may go in to her and be her husband, and she shall be your wife. 14 But if you are not satisfied with her, you shall let her go free and not sell her for money. You must not treat her as a slave, since you have dishonored her.

William J. Webb and Gordan K. Oeste in their new book, Bloody, Brutal, and Barbaric: Wrestling with Troubling War Texts, map out five views. (They admit there are many views between these views so this is little more than a discussion starter, but a good one.) [#ad] This book will be featured on this blog for some time so please join us in the conversation.

Click here to read more.
Source: Christianity Today